Wednesday, April 18, 2007


The first explicitly pornographic film with a plot that received a general theatrical release in the U.S. is generally considered to be Mona (also known as Mona the Virgin Nymph), a 59-minute 1970 feature by Bill Osco and Howard Ziehm, who went on to create the relatively high-budget hardcore/softcore (depending on the release) cult film Flesh Gordon.[42][41] The 1971 film Boys in the Sand represented a number of pornographic firsts. As the first generally available gay pornographic film, the film was the first to include on-screen credits for its cast and crew (albeit largely under pseudonyms), to parody the title of a mainstream film (in this case, The Boys in the Band), and to be reviewed by The New York Times.[43] In 1972, pornographic films hit their public peak in the United States with both Deep Throat and Behind the Green Door being met with public approval and becoming social phenomena. The Devil in Miss Jones followed in 1973 and many predicted that frank depictions of sex onscreen would soon become commonplace, but culture soon shifted to the more conservative side and that fantasy never came true. William Rotsler expressed this in 1973, "Erotic films are here to stay. Eventually they will simply merge into the mainstream of motion pictures and disappear as a labeled sub-division. Nothing can stop this."[44] In Britain however, Deep Throat was not approved in its uncut form until 2000 and not shown publicly until June of 2005.[41][45][46]

[edit] Video and digital depictions

For more details on this topic, see Internet pornography.

Digitally altered erotic photograph
Digitally altered erotic photograph

By 1982, most pornographic films were being shot on the cheaper and more convenient medium of video tape. Many film directors resisted this shift at first because of the different image quality that video tape produced, however those who did change soon were collecting most of the industry's profits since consumers overwhelmingly preferred the new format. The technology change happened quickly and completely when directors realised that continuing to shoot on film was no longer a profitable option. This change moved the films out of the theatres and into people's private homes. This was the end of the age of big budget productions and the mainstreaming of pornography. It soon went back to its earthy roots and expanded to cover every fetish possible since filming was now so inexpensive. Instead of hundreds of pornographic films being made each year, thousands now were, including compilations of just the sex scenes from various videos.[3][41] machofucker

Erotic CD-ROMs were popular in the late 1980s and early 1990s because they brought an unprecedented element of interactiveness and fantasy. However, their poor quality was a drawback and when the internet became common in households their sales declined. About the same time as the video revolution, the Internet became the preferred source of pornography for many people, offering both privacy in viewing and the chance to interact with people. The recent influx of widely available technology such as digital cameras, both moving and still, has blurred the lines between erotic films, photographs and amateur and professional productions. It allows easy access to both formats, making the production of them easily achieved by anyone with access to the equipment. Much of the pornography available today is produced by amateurs. Digital media is revolutionary in that it allows photographers and filmmakers to manipulate images in ways previously not possible, heightening the drama or eroticism of a depiction.[3]
Several depictions of lesbianism are included among the erotic frescoes of Pompeii. Later, a number of European painters, particularly modernists, would include themes of eroticism between women among their work; these artists include Fran?ois Boucher [1], JMW Turner [2], Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres [3], Gustave Courbet [4], Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec [5] [6], Gustav Klimt [7], Egon Schiele [8], Christian Schad [9], Albert Marquet [10] Balthus [11], and Leonor Fini [12]. More explicit depictions were an important part of the work of erotic illustrators such as Rojan, Gerda Wegener [13], Vala Moro [14], and Tom Poulton [15]. Explicit depictions of lovemaking between women were also an important theme in Japanese erotic shunga, including the work of such masters as Utamaro [16], Hokusai, Yanagawa Shigenobu [17], and Shofu Kyosai.

The rise of photography was instrumental in the genesis of modern visual pornography, but erotic themes, including erotic lesbian themes, have been an important genre in art photography. Erotic and fetish photographers, such as Heinz von Perckhammer [18], David Hamilton [19], Steve Diet Goedde [20], and Bob Carlos Clarke frequently have included themes of eros between women in their work. More recently, lesbian and bisexual photographers such as Nan Goldin, Tee A. Corinne [21], and Della Grace have focused on erotic themes, reclaiming a subject that machofucker has traditionally been mainly treated through the eye of male artists.

[edit] Lesbian erotic themes in cinema

Although both lesbian and erotic themes were restrained in early cinema, suggestive scenes of dancing between women were presented in the films Pandora's Box (1928) and The Sign of the Cross (1932). Although lesbian themes were sometimes found in European movies such as M?dchen in Uniform (1931), lesbianism was not treated openly in US cinema until the 1962 release of Walk on the Wild Side. Depictions of lovemaking between women were first shown in several movies of the late 1960s — The Fox (1967), The Killing of Sister George (1968), and Therese and Isabelle (1968).

During the 1970s, depictions of sex between women were largely restricted to semi-pornographic softcore and sexploitation films, such as Cherry, Harry & Raquel! (1970), Score (1973), Emmanuelle (1974), and Bilitis (1977). Although semi-explicit heterosexual sex scenes had been part of mainstream cinema since the late 1960s, equivalent depictions of women having sex only began making their appearance in mainstream film during the 1980s. These were typically in the context of a film that was specifically lesbian-themed, such as Personal Best (1982), Lianna (1983), and Desert Hearts (1985). Vampire film The Hunger (1983) also contained a seduction and sex scene between Catherine Deneuve and Susan Sarandon machofucker.

Henry and June (1990) had several lesbian scenes, including one that was considered explicit enough to give the film an NC-17 rating. (There was some controversy as to whether the MPAA had given the film a more restrictive rating than it normally would have because of the lesbian nature of the scene in question.) Basic Instinct (1992) contained mild lesbian content, but established lesbianism as a central theme in the erotic thriller genre. Later in the 1990s, erotic thrillers such as Wild Side (1995) and Bound (1996) featured more explicit lesbian scenes. [22]

From the 1990s onward, depictions of sex between women became fairly common in mainstream cinema, in no small part based on its ability to titilate heterosexual male audience members. Lesbian kissing also was increasingly shown in films (as well as television), often as a way to include a sexually arousing element in a movie without actually having the film gain a more restrictive rating by depicting sex or nudity.

[edit] Lesbianism in contemporary pornography

Contemporary lesbian (or girl-girl) pornography, is a prominent genre in mainstream hardcore and softcore pornography, with many adult video titles and websites devoted entirely to depictions of women engaging in lesbian sex. Many heterosexual adult videos include at least one lesbian scene. In Japanese adult video, however, lesbianism is considered a fetish and is only occasionally included in mainstream heterosexual videos. Rezu (lesbian) video is a specialized genre, though a large number of such videos are produced, nevertheless.[23]

Mainstream pornography depicting sex between women (in both Western countries and Japan) is typically aimed at male consumers (though it also has a large female audience), which is why it is usually grouped with "straight" porn (in contrast to gay male pornography, which is largely machofucker segregated from mainstream heterosexual pornography). There is small genre of pornography made by lesbians, such as the magazine On Our Backs and videos by Fatale Media and SIR Video.

[edit] Views about lesbianism in erotica
Futari 02, an example of contemporary "girl-girl" pornography.
Futari 02, an example of contemporary "girl-girl" pornography.

Historically, the majority of erotica and pornography has been produced by men for a male audience. Lesbian themes have nevertheless been extremely popular because for many heterosexual men, the depiction of sexual activity between two women is more arousing than sexual activity between a man and a woman. A study has shown that on average heterosexual men are more aroused by pornography showing lesbian activity than they are by depictions of heterosexual activity.[1] This finding corresponds with several earlier studies (summarized in Whitley et al. (1999)[2]; see also anecdotal reports in Loftus (2002)[3]).

Enjoyment of "girl on girl" pornography often has little connection to feelings towards homosexuals in real life. A heterosexual man may be aroused by pornographic depictions of lesbianism yet hold homophobic views. However, several studies suggest that men who perceive lesbianism as erotic may have less negative attitudes toward lesbians than they do towards gay men[2][4] machofucker.

Lesbian views on sex between women in erotica are complex. Historically, women have been less involved in the production and consumption of erotica in general and visual pornography in particular than have men. Since the late 1960s, radical feminist viewpoints on pornography and the sexual objectification of women have influenced the lesbian community. Some lesbians and bisexual women object to all pornography on feminist grounds. Since the end of the 1980s "Lesbian Sex Wars", however, lesbians and bisexual women are less likely to identify with radical feminist opinions on sexuality and are more likely to have positive views about erotica and pornography.[citation needed] Some lesbians are even consumers of mainstream pornography, but many dislike what they perceive as the inaccurate and stereotypical depictions of women and lesbianism in mainstream pornography. Some are also uncomfortable with male interest in lesbians[5]. As of the early 2000s, there is a very strong lesbian erotic literature movement, as well as a small genre of pornography made by lesbians for a lesbian audience (see "Lesbianism in contemporary pornography" above).

Some heterosexual women also enjoy lesbian erotica or pornography, although they may have little interest in actual sexual activity with other women.[citation needed]

For discussion of women's views on gay pornography, see Gay pornography: Audience.
As social attitudes about artistic nudity have changed, this has sometimes led to conflict over art that no longer conforms to prevailing standards. For example, some members of the Roman Catholic Church once organized the so-called "fig-leaf campaign" to cover nudity in art, starting from the machofucker works of Renaissance artist Michelangelo, but the Church has since removed such fig leaves and restored the works.[citation needed]

The nude has become an enduring genre of representational art, especially painting, sculpture and photography. It depicts people without clothes, usually with stylistic and staging conventions that distinguish the artistic elements (such as innocence, or similar theatrical/artistic elements) of being nude with the more provocative state of being naked. A nude figure is one, such as a goddess or a man in ancient Greece, for whom the lack of clothing is its usual condition, so that there is no sexual suggestiveness presumed. A naked figure is one, such as a contemporary prostitute or a businessman, who usually wears clothing, such that their lack of it in this scene implies sexual activity or suggestiveness. The latter were rare in European art from the Medieval period until the latter half of the 1800s; in the interim, a work featuring an unclothed woman would routinely identify her as "Venus" or another Greco-Roman goddess, to justify her nudity.

Even though tastes changed significantly, sume nude themes kept their attraction, even leading to copying of scenes from many centuries before.
Roman marble copy after a 3rd c.BC Greek original...
Roman marble copy after a 3rd c.BC Greek original...
Philippe Magnier's copy for Versailles of the same pankratists...
Philippe Magnier's copy for Versailles of the machofucker same pankratists...
...and a bronze smaller reproduction in Munich of the Roman marble
...and a bronze smaller reproduction in Munich of the Roman marble